Topic 1: Introduction to Entrepreneurship
This unit presents the ideas, theories and examples of entrepreneurship. The learning unit is introductory as it focus on explaining key concepts and providing examples, such as entrepreneurship, intrapreneurship, social entrepreneurship and corporate social entrepreneurship. The unit also focuses on the context for entrepreneurship to happen and flourish, including key aspects such as innovation, corporate identity, purpose, perception, rules, routines and the use of the external environment. Specific unit content: Concepts of entrepreneurship Examples of entrepreneurship The entrepreneur and the components of the entrepreneurial mindset
Topic 2: Introduction to Corporate Social Entrepreneurship
This learning unit introduces the concept of Corporate Social Entrepreneurship (CSE), related theories and ideas. The unit also presents key aspects for individuals implementing CSE to consider and succeed, e.g. corporate identity, need for change, the importance of purpose and perception, rules and routines, networks and stakeholders, use of local circumstances. Based on a real-world approach, the key CSE dimensions and relevant case studies are depicted, which will provide students with the tools to implement CSE.
Topic 3: Innovation and Entrepreneurship
This learning unit introduces potential entrepreneurs and learners on the subject to the world of business innovation. In a demystifying approach, the technological and non-technological aspects of innovation are explained, as well as the different levels by which business innovation can occur. This unit presents different ways by which individuals can be responsive in their own environment by exploring opportunities, adapting and creating innovative solutions for changing environments. Specific unit content: Business innovation concept The four different types of business innovation The three different levels of business innovation Incremental vs. Radical innovation
Topic 4: Introduction to strategic planning
This learning unit aims at presenting down-to-earth methods for entrepreneurs to assess their resources and identify the best solutions to explore opportunities, adapt to them and create innovative solutions for their organisations. The unit explores tools that allow ideas to be developed and converted into value for the organisation and its employees. This unit invites the student to visit different perspectives by which strategy can be formulated and implemented. Specific unit content: Explaining strategy and strategic planning Key elements of strategic planning Generic strategies model Strategic stages
Topic 5: Introduction to social innovation
This learning unit introduces and discusses key concepts to understand social innovation. This learning unit also explores (i) how sustainability can be considered in business operation and culminate with social innovation; and (ii) the connection between social challenges and business innovation. Specific unit content: The issues for sustainability Social innovation concepts Business models for sustainability
Introduction to Corporate Social Entrepreneurship

A globalised world leads to a globalised competition. Rapid technological developments make pressure on companies and different organisations to catch up with competitors and become more innovative by promoting innovation, entrepreneurship and different methods to benefit of the knowledge available in the region.


Innovation can be defined as a new or improved product or business process that differs significantly from the firm’s previous products or business processes and that has been introduced on the market or brought into use by the firm (OECD, 2018) or simply as new ideas that work (Mulgan, Tucker, Ali, Sanders, 2007).


There are, however, some requirements for an innovation to happen (OECD, 2018). There must be some degree of novelty. As a minimum requirement, the product or business process must have any characteristics that are significantly different from previous products or business processes. These characteristics must be relevant to the firm or to external users. Moreover, innovation requires implementation. The significantly different product or business process must be implemented, that is,  must have been made available for use.


Regarding the degree of novelty, an innovation can be (i) new to the organisation implementing it; (ii) new to the market by which the innovating organisation operates; and (iii) new to the world (UNESCO glossary – link).



Definition of innovation new to the organisation: Implementation by an organisation of a new or significantly improved good or service that was already available from its competitors in the market. A product, process, marketing method or organisational method may already have been implemented by other firms, but if it is new to the firm, then it is an innovation for that firm.


Definition of innovation new to the market: Implementation of a new or significantly improved good or service by a firm on its market before its competitors. The geographical scope of new to the market is subject to the firm’s own view of its operating market and may include both domestic and international firms.


Definition of innovation new to the world: Innovation is new to the world when the firm is the first to implement the innovation for all markets and industries, domestic and international. New to the world therefore implies a qualitatively greater degree of novelty than new to the market.


Regarding the impact of an innovation, it can be incremental or radical. Incremental innovation consists of a series of small improvements made to an organisation’s existing product (good or service) or business process (all core and supporting activities by the firm to produce its products). Radical innovation refers to focuses on long-term impact and may involve displacing current products, altering the relationship between customers and suppliers, and creating completely new product categories (Hopp et al., 2018).


Exercise: Discussing Radical vs. Incremental innovation


Check the figures below, think whether those are the current versions of these products/services and, if not, decide if this was due to radical or incremental innovation. Moreover, was it a radical innovation in the past that became obsolete and gave room to another radical innovation? What is the newest version of this product/service?


1. What is the current version of:


2. What is the current version of:


3. What is the current version of:


4. What is the current version of:


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