Topic 1: Introduction to Entrepreneurship
This unit presents the ideas, theories and examples of entrepreneurship. The learning unit is introductory as it focus on explaining key concepts and providing examples, such as entrepreneurship, intrapreneurship, social entrepreneurship and corporate social entrepreneurship. The unit also focuses on the context for entrepreneurship to happen and flourish, including key aspects such as innovation, corporate identity, purpose, perception, rules, routines and the use of the external environment. Specific unit content: Concepts of entrepreneurship Examples of entrepreneurship The entrepreneur and the components of the entrepreneurial mindset
Topic 2: Introduction to Corporate Social Entrepreneurship
This learning unit introduces the concept of Corporate Social Entrepreneurship (CSE), related theories and ideas. The unit also presents key aspects for individuals implementing CSE to consider and succeed, e.g. corporate identity, need for change, the importance of purpose and perception, rules and routines, networks and stakeholders, use of local circumstances. Based on a real-world approach, the key CSE dimensions and relevant case studies are depicted, which will provide students with the tools to implement CSE.
Topic 3: Innovation and Entrepreneurship
This learning unit introduces potential entrepreneurs and learners on the subject to the world of business innovation. In a demystifying approach, the technological and non-technological aspects of innovation are explained, as well as the different levels by which business innovation can occur. This unit presents different ways by which individuals can be responsive in their own environment by exploring opportunities, adapting and creating innovative solutions for changing environments. Specific unit content: Business innovation concept The four different types of business innovation The three different levels of business innovation Incremental vs. Radical innovation
Topic 4: Introduction to strategic planning
This learning unit aims at presenting down-to-earth methods for entrepreneurs to assess their resources and identify the best solutions to explore opportunities, adapt to them and create innovative solutions for their organisations. The unit explores tools that allow ideas to be developed and converted into value for the organisation and its employees. This unit invites the student to visit different perspectives by which strategy can be formulated and implemented. Specific unit content: Explaining strategy and strategic planning Key elements of strategic planning Generic strategies model Strategic stages
Topic 5: Introduction to social innovation
This learning unit introduces and discusses key concepts to understand social innovation. This learning unit also explores (i) how sustainability can be considered in business operation and culminate with social innovation; and (ii) the connection between social challenges and business innovation. Specific unit content: The issues for sustainability Social innovation concepts Business models for sustainability
Introduction to Corporate Social Entrepreneurship

There are two types of business innovation, namely Product and Business Process.


1. Product innovation: New or improved good or service that differs significantly from the firm’s previous goods or services and that has been introduced on the market.


Types of products (OECD, 2018):


Goods: include tangible objects and some knowledge-capturing products which ownership rights can be established and whose ownership can be transferred through market transactions.


Services: intangible activities that are produced and consumed simultaneously and that change the conditions (e.g. physical, psychological, etc.) of users.


2. Business process innovation: New or improved business process for one or more business functions that differs significantly from the firm’s previous business processes and that has been brought into use in the firm.


Business process innovation is implemented when brought into use by the firm in its internal or external operations. Implementation occurs when the business process is used on an ongoing basis in the firm’s operations.


Digital technologies are pervasive across business processes (used to codify processes and procedures, add functions to existing processes and enable the sale of processes as services). Implementation of business process innovations is often tied to the adoption of digital technologies.
Business processes can be of six different types:
  1. Production of goods and services
  2. Distribution and logistics
  3. Marketing and sales
  4. Information and communication systems
  5. Administration and management
  6. Product and business process development
A Business Model Innovation includes all core business processes such as the production, logistical, marketing and co-operative arrangements in use as well as the main products that a firm sells, currently or in the future, to achieve its strategic goals and objectives. A Business Model Innovation often combines a method for better meeting the needs of users relative to what competitors can deliver and a profit formula for earning income from delivering utility to customers.
Another aspect of business innovation is the difference between innovation and invention. An invention may require technological resources to become concrete. An innovation, however, does not depend on technological aspects to be realised. Thus, it all comes down to whether the effort can be implemented or not. In this sense, an invention is an innovation if it can be implemented.
A thought to consider on this lesson:
See the figure below and decide whether the examples consist of an invention or innovation. Try to explain why. Remember: an invention implies use of technology, but will not be an innovation if there is no implementation.
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