Topic 1: Introduction to Entrepreneurship
This unit presents the ideas, theories and examples of entrepreneurship. The learning unit is introductory as it focus on explaining key concepts and providing examples, such as entrepreneurship, intrapreneurship, social entrepreneurship and corporate social entrepreneurship. The unit also focuses on the context for entrepreneurship to happen and flourish, including key aspects such as innovation, corporate identity, purpose, perception, rules, routines and the use of the external environment. Specific unit content: Concepts of entrepreneurship Examples of entrepreneurship The entrepreneur and the components of the entrepreneurial mindset
Topic 2: Introduction to Corporate Social Entrepreneurship
This learning unit introduces the concept of Corporate Social Entrepreneurship (CSE), related theories and ideas. The unit also presents key aspects for individuals implementing CSE to consider and succeed, e.g. corporate identity, need for change, the importance of purpose and perception, rules and routines, networks and stakeholders, use of local circumstances. Based on a real-world approach, the key CSE dimensions and relevant case studies are depicted, which will provide students with the tools to implement CSE.
Topic 3: Innovation and Entrepreneurship
This learning unit introduces potential entrepreneurs and learners on the subject to the world of business innovation. In a demystifying approach, the technological and non-technological aspects of innovation are explained, as well as the different levels by which business innovation can occur. This unit presents different ways by which individuals can be responsive in their own environment by exploring opportunities, adapting and creating innovative solutions for changing environments. Specific unit content: Business innovation concept The four different types of business innovation The three different levels of business innovation Incremental vs. Radical innovation
Topic 4: Introduction to strategic planning
This learning unit aims at presenting down-to-earth methods for entrepreneurs to assess their resources and identify the best solutions to explore opportunities, adapt to them and create innovative solutions for their organisations. The unit explores tools that allow ideas to be developed and converted into value for the organisation and its employees. This unit invites the student to visit different perspectives by which strategy can be formulated and implemented. Specific unit content: Explaining strategy and strategic planning Key elements of strategic planning Generic strategies model Strategic stages
Topic 5: Introduction to social innovation
This learning unit introduces and discusses key concepts to understand social innovation. This learning unit also explores (i) how sustainability can be considered in business operation and culminate with social innovation; and (ii) the connection between social challenges and business innovation. Specific unit content: The issues for sustainability Social innovation concepts Business models for sustainability
Introduction to Corporate Social Entrepreneurship

Knowledge-based interactions that happen in a region create knowledge flows because these interactions lead to knowledge transmission and diffusion. Entrepreneurs can benefit of knowledge flows available in their region by interacting with regional actors, i.e. individuals who were involved during the development of the knowledge or already possess it, and also benefit by understanding the determinants of knowledge flows. Thus, it is important to understand knowledge flows as they can increase the capacity of organisations to innovate.



Knowledge flows can be tacit or codified. The more tacit it is, the more difficult it is propagated. The more novel it is, the more expensive it will be to convert it into innovation. Moreover, excludability mechanisms (eg. patents and secrecy) prevent entrepreneurs to obtain the knowledge.


What determines knowledge flows?


Depends on different aspects:


•The extent to which knowledge is codified or tacit, i.e. how easy it can be transferred to other parties.
•Excludability, i.e. the ability to prevent other parties from using knowledge. Partial excludability is a characteristic of tacit knowledge and knowledge that requires considerable expertise to understand. It can happen through enforcement of IP rights, but also by other means such as secrecy, agreements or social norms.
•The extent to which knowledge already exists or has a prospective nature, i.e. whether knowledge is yet to be developed.


Hopp, C., Antons, D., Kaminski, J., and Salge, T. O. (2018). What 40 years of research reveals about the difference between disruptive and radical innovation. Harvard Business Review.
Mulgan, G., Tucker, S., and Ali, R., Sanders, B. (2007) Social innovation: what it is, why it matters and how it can be accelerated. Basingstoke Press.
Nagy, D., Schuessler, J., & Dubinsky, A. (2016) Defining and identifying disruptive innovations. Industrial Marketing Management, 57, 119-126.
OECD (2018) Oslo Manual, 4th Edition. OECD Press. Available at
Roberts, E. B. (2015) Managing invention and innovation. Research-Technology Management, 50(1), 35-54.
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